Sunday, 6 February 2011

Invention of telegraph

The word "telegraph" is derived from Greek and means "to write far"; so it is a very exact word, for to write far is precisely what we did when we sent a telegram. At the height of it use, telegraph technology involved a worldwide system of wires with stations and operators and messengers, that carried messages and news by electricity faster than any other invention before it.

Pre-electricity

The first crude telegraph system was made without electricity. It was a system of semaphores, or tall poles with movable arms, and other signaling apparatus, set within physical sight of one another.There was such a telegraph line between Dover and London at during the Battle of Waterloo; that related the news of the battle, which had come to Dover by ship, to an anxious London, when a fog set in (obscuring the line of sight) and the Londoners had to wait until a courier on horseback arrived.

Electrical Telegraph

The electrical telegraph is one of America's gifts to the world. The honor for this invention falls to Samuel Finley Breese Morse. Other inventors had discovered the principles of the telegraph, but Samuel Morse was the first to perceive the practical significance of those facts; and was the first to take steps to make a practical invention; which took him twelve long years of work.

In 1791, the French engineer Claude Chappe (1763-1805)

and his brother Ignace (1760-1829) invented the semaphore, an optical telegraph system that relayed messages from hilltop to hilltop using telescopes. The Chappes built a series of two-arm towers between cities. Each tower was equipped with telescopes pointing in either direction and a cross at its top whose extended arms could each assume seven easily-seen angular positions. Together, they could signal all the letters of the French alphabet as well as some numbers. Their system was successful and soon was duplicated elsewhere in Europe. It was Chappe who coined the word telegraph. He combined the Greek words tele meaning distance and graphien meaning to write, to define it as "writing at a distance." Its shortcomings however were its dependence on good weather and its need for a large operating staff. Advances in electricity would soon put this system out of business.

It was the invention of the battery and the resultant availability of electric charges moving at 186,000 mi (299,460 km) a second that accomplished this. Prior to this invention by the Italian physicist Alessandro Giuseppe A. A. Volta (1745-1827) in 1800, attempts to use electricity to communicate had failed because a dependable source of electricity was not available and the long, iron wires needed did not conduct electricity well and could not be properly insulated. Volta's new battery meant that experimenters had for the first time a reliable current of sufficient strength to transmit signals. The next major development was in 1819 when the Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851) demonstrated that he could use an electric current to deflect a magnetic needle. Further, he showed that the direction of the movement depended on the direction of the flow of the current. This pointed the way to the true telegraph. While several researchers in different countries were attempting to exploit the communications aspects of this discovery, two Englishmen, William Fothergill Cooke (1806-1879) and Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875), formed a partnership and designed a five-needle telegraph system in 1837. Their system used needles to point to letters of the alphabet and numbers that were arranged on a panel. Their electric telegraph was immediately put to use on the British railway system. This system was used primarily for railroad signalling until 1845 when an event raised the

public's awareness of the potential of the telegraph. On New Year's Day, 1845, the telegraph was used to catch a murderer who had been seen boarding a train bound for London. The information was telegraphed ahead and the murderer was arrested, tried, and hanged.

Although Cooke and Wheatstone built the first successful telegraph based on electricity, it was an American artist and inventor, Samuel Finley Breese Morse (1791-1872), who would devise a telegraph method that would eventually become universally adopted. Morse had begun investigating telegraphy at about the same time as his English rivals, but he had no scientific background and was getting nowhere until he was informed about the 1825 invention of the electromagnet that had been made by the English physicist William Sturgeon (1783-1850). Fortunately for Morse, he took his inquiries to the American physicist Joseph Henry (1797-1878), who had built in 1831 an extremely powerful electromagnet (it could lift 750 lb [341 kg] compared to Sturgeon's 9 lb [4.1 kg]). More importantly, Henry had successfully experimented with using the electromagnet to transmit signals and clearly understood what would become the fundamental principle of the telegraph—the opening and closing of an electric circuit supplied by a battery. Henry gladly enlightened Morse on the mysteries of electromagnetism, and the determined Morse took it from there. He enlisted the aid of a young mechanic, Alfred Vail, and together they improved on the work Morse had already started. These early attempts using an electromagnet resulted in a pen touching a moving piece of paper to record a series of dots and dashes. This system presumes a coded message, and Morse had created his own system which, when he collaborated with Vail, resulted in the now-famous Morse code. Vail contributed significantly to the code, having visited a printer to determine which letters were most and least often used. Their code was then based on the most common letters having the simplest, shortest of symbols (dots and dashes). By 1837, they had put together a system which used a single, simple operator key which, when depressed, completed an electric circuit and sent a signal to a distant receiver over a wire. Their first public demonstration was made at Vail's shop in Morristown, New Jersey, and in 1843, the U. S. Government appropriated funds to build a pole line spanning the 37 mi (59.5 km) between Baltimore, Maryland and Washington, D.C. On May 24, 1844, the historic message, "What hath God wrought?" was sent and received. Once the system became practiced, it was found that skilled operators could "read" a message without looking at the dots and dashes on the paper by simply listening to the sound of the electromagnet's clicking. This led to the elimination of the paper and an even simpler electric telegraph system that used only a key, battery, pole line, and a new sounder to make the dot or dash clicking sound clear. Using such simple equipment and a single, insulated copper wire, Morse's telegraph system spread quickly across the United States and eventually replaced the older, English versions in Europe.

As the telegraph system grew and spread across the world, improvements followed fairly quickly. One of the first was Morse's development of a relay system to cover longer distances. His relay used a series of electromagnet receivers working on low current, each of which opened and shut the switch of a successive electric circuit supplied by its own battery. Telegraph use increased with the invention in Germany of the duplex circuit, allowing messages to travel simultaneously in opposite directions on the same line. In 1874, American inventor Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931) designed a double duplex called a quadruplex. This higher-capacity system needed eight operators who handled four messages at one time, two in each direction. A high-speed automatic Morse system also had been invented by Wheatstone in 1858, whose punched-paper tape idea offered a means by which a message could be stored and sent by a high speed transmitter that could read the holes in the tape. This system could transmit up to 600 words per minute. The most revolutionary and innovative improvement however was a time-division, multiplex-printing telegraph system devised in 1872 by the French engineer, Jean Maurice Emile Baudot (1845-1903). His system was based on his new code which replaced the Morse code. It employed a five-unit code whose every character contained five symbol elements. The heart of his system was a distributor consisting of a stationary faceplate of concentric copper rings that were swept by brushes mounted on a rotating assembly. This logical system greatly increased the traffic capacity of each line and was so far ahead of its time that it contained many elements from which modern systems have evolved.

By the end of the nineteenth century, most of the world was connected by telegraph lines, including several cables that crossed the Atlantic Ocean. The first underwater conductor was laid by Morse in New York Harbor in 1842. Insulated with India rubber, it did not last long. After the German-English inventor, William Siemans (1823-1883) devised a machine to apply gutta-percha as insulation in 1847, submarine cables were laid across the English Channel from Dover, England to Calais, France in 1850-51. Unsuccessful attempts to span the Atlantic were made in 1857, 1858, and 1865, all under the guidance of American entrepreneur, Cyrus West Field (1819-1892). On July 27, 1866, Field was successful in his fourth attempt, and having connected the United States to Europe, he immediately returned to sea, recovered the lost 1865 cable, and had a second transatlantic telegraph cable working that same year. By 1940 there were 40 transatlantic cables in operation. Ten years later, some of these began to fail and were not repaired for economic reasons. In 1956, transatlantic telephone cables were first laid, and in 1966, the last of the exclusively telegraph cables were abandoned.

Throughout its history, the telegraph proved especially useful to the military. It was first used for these purposes in 1854 by the Allied Army in Bulgaria during the Crimean War. A transcontinental telegraph line had been completed in the United States just as the Civil War began, and the telegraph proved enormously useful to both sides. During the Spanish-American War in 1898, undersea telegraph cables were cut as an act of belligerency for the first time, and in World War I, teleprinters with secret codes were heavily used by all combatants.

The earliest teleprinter was invented by an American, Royal E. House, in 1846, only two years after Morse's first success. The transmitter had 28 character keys and employed a fairly crude system that even had a hand crank. Although it was used for only a few years, it was the forerunner of both the teleprinter and the stock ticker. At the turn of the century, a Nova Scotia inventor, Frederick G. Creed (1871-1957), experimented in Scotland with using a typewriter to send printed messages without using the Morse Code. His teleprinter system did not catch on in England, and in 1907, Charles L. Krumm of the United States designed the prototype version of the modern teleprinter. This system was subsequently improved, and during the 1920s became known by the American Telephone and Telegraph trade name, Teletype. Commercial teleprinter exchange services called TRX and Telex were developed during the next decade that were capable of printing up to 500 characters per minute. By 1964, this was up to 900 characters per minute. By then, technical improvements in the telephone had made an entire new range of technology available to telegraphy, and today, the telegraph has evolved into a modern digital data-transmission system. Today's modern systems use television coaxial cables, microwave, optical fiber, and satellite links to achieve an extremely high transmission rate.

The invention of the telegraph could in some ways be seen as the real beginning of our modern age, given the way in which it so interconnected the entire world. Almost coincidental with its birth there was the emergence of a new kind of journalism that made currency its stock in trade. Reporting events that had only just occurred took precedence over a newspaper's traditional editorial role, and news was reported almost as soon as it happened. Corporations also could become larger and more far-flung, and nations became necessarily more interdependent. With the telegraph, information—in all its aspects and forms—began to assume the critical role it plays today.

Invention and applicaion of telephone

Probably no means of communication has revolutionized the daily lives of ordinary people more than the telephone. The actual history of the telephone is a subject of complex dispute. The controversy began with the success of the invention and continues today. Some of the inventors credited with inventing the telephone include Antonio Meucci, Philip Reis, Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell. Bell's experiments with his assistant Thomas Watson finally proved successful on March 10, 1876, when the first complete sentence was transmitted: "Watson, come here; I want you."
The
modern telephone is the culmination of work done by many individuals. Alexander Graham Bell was the first to patent the telephone, an "apparatus for transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically", after experimenting with many primitive sound
transmitters and receivers. However, the history of the invention of the
telephone is a confusing collection of claims and counterclaims, made no less confusing by the many lawsuits which attempted to resolve the patent claims of several individuals.

1831 Michael Faraday proved that vibrations of metal could be converted to electrical impulses.
1861 Johann Philip Reis built a apparatus that changed sound to electricity and back again to sound
1871 Antonio Meucci filed his patent caveat (notice of intention to take out a patent)
1874 A. G. Bell while working on a multiple telegraph, developed the basic ideas for the telephon
1875 Bell files first patent for improved telegraphy
1876 Bell and Watson transmit the first complete sentence
1876 Bell files patent application on February 14,. patent issues March 7
1876 Elisha Gray filed his patent caveat (notice of intention to take out a patent) on February 14,
1877 formed Bell Telephone Company to operate local telephone exchange operation
1877 first city exchange installed in Hartford, Connecticut
1879 irst exchange outside the United States was built in London, England
1880 invented the photophone, which transmits speech by light rays
1882 acquired a controlling interest in the Western Electric Company, Elisha Gray's company
1883 irst exchange linking two major cities was established between New York and Boston
1885 formed American Telephone and Telegraph Company to operate the long distance network.
1888 coin operated pay telephone was patented by William Gray of Hartford, Connecticut
1891 first automatic telephone exchange was patented by Almon Strowger of Kansas City
1921 The Detroit Police Department, began experimentation with one-way vehicular mobile service.
1928 Detroit Police commenced regular one-way radio communication with all its patrol cars.
1933 Bayonne, NJ Police Department initiated regular two-way communications with its patrol cars
1936 Alton Dickieson, H.I. Romnes and D. Mitchell begin design of AT&T's mobile phone system
1940 Connecticut State Police began statewide two-way, on the frequency modulated (FM)
1941 FM mobile radio became standard throughout the country following the success in Connecticut
1946 A driver in St. Louis, Mo., placed a phone call,it was the first AT&T mobile telephone call.
1948 wireless telephone service was available in almost 100 cities and highway corridors.
1947 cellular telephone service conceived by D.H. Ring at Bell Labs, but the technology didn't exist
1962 The first commercial touch-tone phones were a big hit in their preview at Seattle World's Fair.
1970 commercial Picture phone service debuted in downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
1971 Richard Frenkiel and Joel Engel of AT&T applied computers and electronics to make it work.
1973 Martin Cooper of Motorola made the first cellphone call to his rival Joe Engel of AT&T Bell Labs
1978 AT&T conducted FCC-authorized field trials in Chicago and Newark, N.J.
1979 the first cellular network was launched in Japan.
1982 FCC granted commercial licenses to an AT&T subsidiary, Advanced Mobile Phone Service
1983 AMPS was then divided among the local companies as part of the planning for divestiture
1983 Illinois Bell opened the first commercial cellular system in October.

Simply described, it is a system which converts sound, specifically the human voice, to electrical impulses of various frequencies and then back to a tone that sounds like the original voice. In 1831, Englishman Michael Faraday (1791-1867) proved that vibrations of metal could be converted to electrical impulses. This was the technological basis

of the telephone, but no one actually used this system to transmit sound until 1861. In that year, Johann Philip Reis (1834-1874) in Germany is said to have built a simple apparatus that changed sound to electricity and back again to sound. A crude device, it was incapable of transmitting most frequencies, and it was never fully developed.

A practical telephone was actually invented independently by two men working in the United States, Elisha Gray and Scottish-born Alexander Graham Bell. Incredibly, both men filed for a patent on their designs at the New York patent office on February 14, 1876, with Bell beating Gray by only two hours! Although Gray had built the first steel diaphragm / electromagnet receiver in 1874, he wasn’t able to master the design of a workable transmitter until after Bell had. Bell had worked tirelessly, experimenting with various types of mechanisms, while Gray had become discouraged.

According to the famous story, the first fully intelligible telephone call occurred on March 6, 1876, when Bell, in one room, called to his assistant in another room. "Come here, Watson, I want you."

Watson heard the request through a receiver connected to the transmitter that Bell had designed, and what followed after that is a history of the founding of the Bell Telephone Company (later AT&T), which grew to be the largest telephone company in the world.

The first telephone system, known as an exchange, which is a practical means of communicating between many people who have telephones, was installed in Hartford, Connecticut in 1877, and the first exchange linking two major cities was established between New York and Boston in 1883. The first exchange outside the United States was built in London in 1879. The exchange involved a group of operators working at a large switchboard. The operators would answer an incoming telephone call and connect it manually to the party being called. The first automatic telephone exchange was patented by Almon Strowger of Kansas City in 1891 and installed in 1892, but manual switchboards remained in common use until the middle of the twentieth century.

The coin operated pay telephone was patented by William Gray of Hartford in 1889. The first rotary dial telephone was developed in 1923 by Antoine Barnay in France. The mobile telephone was invented by Bell Telephone Company and introduced into New York City police cars in 1924. Although the first commercial mobile telephone service became available in St. Louis, Missouri in 1946, the mobile telephone would not become common for another four decades.

The first touch-tone system - which used tones in the voice frequency range rather than pulses generated by rotary dials - was installed in Baltimore, MD, in 1941. Operators in a central switching office pushed the buttons; it was much too expensive for general use. However, the Bell System was intrigued by touch-tone because it increased the speed of dialing.

By the early 1960s, low-cost transistors and associated circuit components made the introduction of touch-tone into home telephones possible. Extensive human factors tests determined the position of the buttons to limit errors and increase dialing speed even further. The first commercial touch-tone phones were a big hit in their preview at the 1962 Seattle World's Fair.

The first Picturephone test system, built in 1956, was crude—it transmitted an image only once every two seconds. But by 1964 a complete experimental system, the "Mod 1," had been developed. To test it, the public was invited to place calls between special exhibits at Disneyland and the New York World’s Fair. In both locations, visitors were carefully interviewed afterward by a market research agency.

People, it turned out, didn’t like Picturephone. The equipment was too bulky, the controls too unfriendly, and the picture too small. But the Bell System was convinced that Picturephone was viable. Trials went on for six more years. In 1970, commercial Picturephone service debuted in downtown Pittsburgh and AT&T executives confidently predicted that a million Picturephone sets would be in use by 1980.

What happened? Despite its improvements, Picturephone was still big, expensive, and uncomfortably intrusive. It was only two decades later, with improvements in speed, resolution, miniaturization, and the incorporation of Picturephone into another piece of desktop equipment, the computer, that the promise of a personal video communication system was realized.

In 1978, American Telephone and Telegraph’s (AT&T) Bell Laboratories began testing a mobile telephone system based on hexagonal geographical regions called cells. As the caller’s vehicle passed from one cell to another, an automatic switching system would transfer the telephone call to another cell without interruption. The cellular telephone system began nationwide usage in the United States in 1983.

Tuesday, 5 October 2010

SYLLABUS of M.Sc. (ELECTRONIC MEDIA) for Fourth Semester

M-19 Media law & Ethics

Objective:
- Understanding basic laws relating to media
- To give an overview of recent amendments in media laws
- To develop students as responsible media person

Unit 1 Press freedom and Law

Constitution and freedom of speech and expression
Contempt of court
Official Secrets act 1923
Right to information
Right to Privacy

Unit 2 Media and Laws
�� Civil and Criminal law of defamation
�� Indian Penal Code 1860 (Section -124A,153AB,292,293)
�� Criminal Procedure Code 1973 (Section -93,95,96,108,144,196,327)
�� Intellectual property rights
�� Copy Right Act 1957
Unit 3 Electronic Media Laws
�� Prasar Bharti Act 1990
�� Cable TV Network regulation Act 1995
�� Cinematography Act 1952
�� Information Technology Act 2000
�� Convergence Laws
�� Cyber laws & regulations
�� Cyber crime
Unit 4 Media Commissions and Committees
�� Press Commissions
�� Concept of Press Council – Media Council
�� Working Journalist Act
�� Autonomy of public broadcasting
Unit 5 Media Codes and Ethics
�� Advertising Council of India
�� Parliamentary Privileges: article 105, 193 and 361A of constitution
�� Guidelines for Parliamentary coverage (Geeta Mukherjee Committee's report)
�� AIR Code for election coverage
�� Sc v/s on airway
�� Uplinking rules
�� Doordarshan commercial code
�� ASCI case study
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Assignments:-
- Organize a debate on Prasar Bharti and present scenario of AIR and DD
- Each student present a paper on one press law assigned by faculty.
- Participate in a seminar on the issue of 'freedom of press'
- Debate on obscenity and film censor board.
- Any other assignment given by the faculty
Reference:-
- Media law for producers by Miller , Phlip H
- 11 Myths of media Violence by Potter, W James
- Cyber Crime & law Enforcement by Dudeja, V.D.
- Press Vidhi by Nand Kishore Trikha
- Journalistic Ethics by PK Badhopadhyay and Kuldeep S. Arora
- Janmadhyam: Kanoon Evem Uttardayitva - Dr. Shrikant Singh
- Press Laws by DD Basu, Prentice Hall Pub.
- Mass Media Laws and Regulations in India, AMIC Publication
- Bharat Mein Press Vidhi by Surender Kumar Manohar Prabhakar
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M-20 (A) Professional Videography
Objectives:
- Understand the factors affecting visual quality of video camera Image.
- Able to handle different cameras: beta, digital & studio cameras
- Learn & Practice different camera angles and camera movements
- Learn about color Temperature and perform white balancing.
- Understand the problems of mix lighting i.e. indoor & outdoor lighting
- Able to select lens, filters & microphones for a given application
Unit 1 Introduction to T.V Technology
�� Picture formation
�� T.V Scanning : Horizontal & Vertical
�� Frame & field rate
�� Resolution video bandwidth, sync. blanking signals, colour burst,
sensitivity, linearity etc.
�� Television standards: NTSC, PAL, SECAM.
Unit 2 Principle of Video Camera
�� Primary & secondary colours
�� Photo conduction, photo voltaic, photo emissive effect
�� Working principle of video camera
�� CCD cameras : Three CCD, single CCD colour camera
�� Various sizes of pickup devices
Unit 3 Components and Controls of Video Camera.
�� Parts of a video camera
�� Different controls on video camera
�� Power switch, preheat, genlock, white balance, gain, iris, pedestal etc.
�� Zoom control: servo, manual, remote, zoom extenders.
�� Focus control : auto, manual , remote, back focus, macro focus.
�� Camera view finders (B/W and colour ). Its indicators and control.
Unit 4 Balancing of Colours of a video camera.
�� Colour temperature
�� White balance: Process and need.
�� Camera filters
�� Camera control unit ( CCU )
�� Waveform monitor for output level of video
�� Vector scope
Unit 5 Video Camera Lenses.
�� Perspective
�� Types and use-normal lens, telephoto lens, wide-angle lens.
�� Zoom lens.
�� Tripod, types of tripod heads, dolly, trolley & other accessories.
�� Different types of camera angles and use
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�� Camera movements – types & use.
Unit 6 Different Types of Television Cameras
�� ENG camera
�� EFP camera
�� Studio cameras
�� Special cameras: underwater camera, Endoscopic camera, Aerial
photography camera, remote control camera, high-speed video cameras
�� Types of microphones used on video camera
�� Types of audio & video connectors
�� Introduction to video formats: VHS, S-VHS, U-matic: Low-band & Hiband,
betacam, betacam SP, digi-betacam, mini DV, DV/DVC, DVC
Pro, DV-CAM,
Assignment:-
- Perform video shooting of the following and record and report your
findings.
(A) Fire at night
(B) Interview of a guest with image size exposing a live computer screen to
vision
(C) Welding Arc in vision
(D) Arrival of monsoon-heavy rains
(E) Wide shot of village with sky at least half the height of the frame
(F) A shot combining the following moves zoom, tilt, and pan
- Conduct a study of at least three modern broadcast quality video camera’s
and describe critical facilities and controls.
- Perform the following adjustments to a given camera
(A) Eyepiece
(B) View finder adjustments
(C) Phase reversal
(D) Audio adjustment (camcorder)
(E) Zebra pattern
(F) Gain adjustment
(G) Selection of camera filters
(H) Macro adjustment
(I) Back focus adjustment
- Study the effects of variety of filters –N.D. filter, C.C. filters, special effect
filters etc.
- Study and report functioning of (a) wave form monitor, (b) Vectroscope
- Perform a two character interaction with camera mounted on trolley and
fifty feet track.
- Measure the horizontal angle of a given camera at a full wide setting.
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Reference:
- Digital Television by Herve Benoit
- Studio and outside broadcast Camera work by Peter ward
- Video Camera techniques by Gerald Millerson
- Creating special effects for TV & Video by Bernard Wilkie
- Grammar of the shot by Roy Thomson
- Basics of Video Production by Der Lyur & Graham
- Single camera video production by Robart B. Murburger
- On camera by Harris Watts.
- Television Production by Burrows/ Wood Pub. W.C. Brown IQWA USA.
- Television Production by Allan Wurtzel, McGraw Hills Book Co. New
Delhi.
- Television Production by Zettl Herbert
- The Technique of Television Production by Gerald Millerson
- Broadcasting/cable and Beyond by Joseph R. downick
- Shooting Digital Video by Jon Fauer
- Basic T.V Technology, Digital and Analog by Robert L. Hartwig
- Introduction to T.V Technology by Inglis
- Broadcasting Technology by O.P Shrivastava
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M-20 (B) Audio Production Techniques
Objectives:
- To acquaint students with the concept and ideology of radio medium,
- To sensitize them to the socio-economic issues of our country in order to
understand their commitment as a broadcaster,
- To develop their abilities to produce good quality audio programs comprising
all the conventional and modern program genres,
- To familiarize them with the latest audio technology including digital
transmission,
- To cultivate in them a journalistic insight to analyze and synthesize the
various issues of human life in proper perspective,
- To seed in them all the good qualities of a professional broadcaster to meet the
challenges posed by the rapidly changing environment.
Unit 1 Radio Program Genres
�� Generation of program ideas and process of production,
�� Classification of radio program formats and concept of creativity,
�� Presentation techniques of spoken word programs (talks, interviews, radio
reports, chat-shows, reviews, discussions, debates, commentaries,
magazines etc.)
�� Conducting various types of interviews,
�� Planning and production of radio documentaries,
�� Presentation techniques of radio dramas, skits, family serials, quickies,
commercial spots, jingles etc.
�� Production of entertainment programs including classical, light, and folk
music programs, music appreciation, operas, film music, listener’s request,
invited audience music programs etc.
Unit 2 Interactive Program Formats
�� Concept and significance of phone-in-program,
�� Field generated and participatory programs,
�� Special audience programs-youth, farmers, women, children, senior
citizens etc.
�� Special drives and campaigns including special topic programs (science,
sports, family welfare, environment, development etc,)
Unit 3 Production Techniques
�� Recording of programs, selection of sound effects, editing and mixing
techniques,
�� Art of comparing and announcing (voice quality, modulation and
pronunciation techniques)
�� Codes and ethics in broadcasting,
�� Process of planning, scheduling and transmission,
�� Evaluation of programs and quality control.
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Unit 4 Studio Facilities, Equipment and Modern Technology
�� Layout of a studio
�� Acoustics, quality of a audio signal,
�� Types and use of microphones , Tape recorders, mixers console, control
panels, audio tapes etc.
�� Analogue and digital recording,
�� Mono and stereo sound systems.
�� Satellite transmission and its advantages,
�� New technologies in audio broadcasting DAB,
�� Use of computers in broadcasting,
�� Satellite radio, web radio, convergence of technology,
Unit 5 Broadcast Business and Funding Mechanism
�� Marketing of radio programs and revenue earning prospects,
�� Conducting audience research and listeners surveys.
�� Philosophy of local broadcasting,
�� Private F.M. broadcasting,
�� Vividh Bharti commercial broadcasting,
Assignments:-
- Participating in a seminars on social commitment of radio and presentation
of papers on various aspects of social commitment.
- Participation in a debate to discuss the contribution of radio Broadcasts
during the last 50 Years.
- Production of model programs covering all the important genres of spoken
word i.e., skit, interview, spotlight, newsreel etc. involving, recording,
dubbing and mixing techniques.
- Production of a documentary on current topic related to development
activities.
- Compering of entertainment programs, moderating debates and
conduction chat shows (at least two items in each format)
- Production of two short programs based on field interviews (specially
issue based)
- Writing and presentation of two news bulletins for duration of 10 minutes
each.
- Writing a report on the financial and funding mechanism of AIR Station .
Reference :
- Sound and Recording : an introduction by Francis Rumrey
- Awasthy G.C. :Broad casting in India, Allied publishers, Mumbai, 1965.
- Chatterji, P.C. :Broadcasting in India, Sage, New Delhi, 1988.
- Masani, Meher :Broadcasting and People, National Book Trust, New
Delhi,1997.
- Luthra, H.R. Indian Broadcasting, Publication Division, New Delhi,
19986.
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- Akash Bharti National Broadcast Trust : Publication Division, New Delhi,
1987.
- Report of the Working Group on Television ‘software for Doordarshan
Vol. I & II, Publication Division, New Delhi, 1985.
- Hellard Robert, Writing for television and radio, Words worth Publishing
Company, Belmont, 1984.
- White, Ted el al, Broadcast News, writing, reporting and production.
Macmillan, NY. 1984.
- Mitchell Stephen, Holt: Broadcast News, Radio Journalism and an
introduction to Television., Rinehart & Winston. NY. 1980
- Edger E.Willis & Henary B.Aldrige, Television and Radio, Prentice Hall.
- Stuart W. Hyde, Television and radio announcing, Kanishka Publishers,
Delhi.
- Smith E. Leslie, Perspective on radio and TV. Harper & Raw NY.
- Macliesh Robert, Radio Production Techniques. Macmillan. NY.
- Nostrum, William J. Van. The Script Writers’ Handbook.
- Singhal, Arvind, & Rogers, Everett, India’s Information revolution. Sage.
New Delhi.
- Sim Harris & Paul Chantler, Local Radio, Focal press.
- Ash, William, The Way to Write radio Drama, BBC,
- Crook, Tim, Radio Drama; Theory and Practice, London.
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M-21 (A) Non-linear editing
Unit -1 Basic Concepts
�� Non-linear editing.
�� Hardware requirements
�� Introduction to Adobe Premiere
Unit -2 Editing Aesthetics
�� Concept of time and space
�� Editing news and documentary
�� Selection of relevant music
�� Editing for different formats of T V Programmes
Unit -3 Editing Basics
�� TRIM BIN, TIME LINE, PREVIEW in context of NLE layout
�� Creating a time line
�� Main tools of editing - Selection, Range Select, Rolling, Edit, Razor, Hand Tool,
Cross fade, In point, Zoom tools etc.
Unit-4 Advance editing
�� Audio Mixing
�� Dissolve transitions and fading patterns
�� Special Audio-Video effects
�� Titling and graphics
Unit-5 Taking editing output
�� Rendering edited text
�� Authoring VCD/ACD/DVD
�� Packaging and Marketing
Assingment :
1-Editing of minimum 5 news item for video magazine on NLE work station
2-Generate special video effects for documentary
3-Record a narration for any programe for 5 minitues duration
4- Any other assignment by the concern faculty
Reference :
- Grammar of the edit by Roy Tohmson
- Nonlinear editing by Patrick Marrie
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M - 21 (B) WEB JOURNALISM
Objectives:-
♦ To develop students as responsible web journalist
♦ To impart knowledge of new media
♦ To impart skills of writing for web portals
♦ To train students for web reporting
Unit 1 Introduction to Internet
�� Internet : meaning and history
�� Functioning of internet
�� Uses of internet in communication
�� Fundamentals of internet:WWW, IP, web page, web site, search engine,
browser, domain name
�� Concept of cyber space
Unit 2 Internet, Communication and Journalism
�� Internet as a medium of journalism
�� Powers and limitations of internet
�� Evolution of internet language
�� Mass communication after internet
�� Issues of new media
Unit 3 Web Technology
�� Making of a web page: HTML, FTP, etc.
�� Role of web master, application programmer and network engineer
�� Web team members: visualizer, graphics designer, project manager, web
site manager, animator, audio-video expert,
Unit 4 Functioning of a Portal Office
�� Content team member
�� Structure of a web news room
�� Content collection and selection
�� Web writing and copy editing,
�� Web updating and web reporting
Unit 5 Web Industry
�� Introduction to major news portals
�� Economics of a news portal
�� Web advertising
�� Cyber crimes, cyber laws & regulation
Assingment:
53
- Participate in debate on the internet as a medium of mass communication
- Prepare a chart of the structure of a portal office
- Prepare web copies for news
- Plan a small web news portal project
- Any other job work assigned by the faculty
Reference:
- Computer journals and magazines
- Major news portals
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54
M - 22 Dissertation
Dissertation has a great academic/research value as well as method to develop
in depth knowledge, investigation skill and serious understanding in his/her behaviour for
success in the field of journalism.
Every student will have to work on a dissertation in any area of Mass Media
detailed in the curriculum. For completing the dissertation they will follow the research
steps under the guidence of the faculty members or guide approved by department. The
objectives of the dissertation is to :
• To enable the student to identify the prominent & important issues in the field of
electronic media.
• To have knowledge of history and significance of various dimensions of the
issue.
• To carry out field survey for data collection and thus familiarize with the process
of survey, data collection and analysis.
• To carry out intensive study to make their dissertation valuable & authentic.
To provide them opportunity to go for references, analysis and additional subject
related readings.
Student should be guided by the following points during the research/study of
his/her dissertation -
1. Title It should be decided with the help of HOD/ approved guide and must be
submitted in the beginning of 4th semester or 3rd semester
2. Synopsis-After finalizing the title, synopsis should be submitted (Research design
with clearly indicating aims, objective and review of literature etc.) in
the first month of 4th semester
3. Progress -From time to time student will give his/her progress report of
research to department in writing and signed by guide. A minimum of three
reports must be submitted before final submission of study.
4. Final submission of dissertation in two copies, hard bound or spiral, so that it can
be preserved, before the final examination. The date of submission will be
decided by HOD.
This dissertation will have of 100 marks and will be evaluated by external
examiners. Sixty marks for content and presentation of dissertation, 20 marks on progress
reports during the study as mentioned earlier and 20 marks will be on the viva taken by
external and/or internal examiner.
Guidelines for submission of dissertation
55
For submission of dissertation, students will have to argue the section and
justification of their synopsis. They will have to:
1. Identify the issues which is of Seminal academic importance in communicative
studies
2. They will have to know the history, ideas of Serious issues.
3. They will have to offer various perspective and insight about issues
4. They will have to carry out field survey
5 They will have to carry out intensive study
This dissertation thesis will comprise of 80 marks and would be evaluated by
outstanding examiners. Remaining 20 marks would be assingned on the viva which
would be taken by external examiners. All together the dessertation will comprise of 100
marks.
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56
M-23 Project work & Viva
Guidelines for Projects work
• Introduction
Here at CAVS we lay due emphasis on project work by students.
Projects work provides them opportunity to encounter real life conditions. It expose them to
world of work.
During project work students get an opportunity to apply knowledge and skills acquired by
them during their interactions at CAVS. Here they actually demonstrate value addition as a
result of all interventions at CAVS.
• Criteria of activities
1) Students undertake a project Activity in consultation with their guide.
2) Specifications are defined.
3) Standard process is followed in attainment of project objectives.
4) Adequate provision is made for CONCEPTUAL and CONCRETE phase of production.
5) Every single effort is documented.
6) Students themselves manage work distribution among their group members where task is
undertaken by a group.
7) Emphasis is layed on students meeting their deadlines.
8) Students undergo self, peer and tutor feedback at the end of task.
9) A copy of furnished project is held by each student as a part of their portfolio.
• Evaluation
All the project work are evaluated independently by an external expert identified for the
purpose.
Here the students demonstrate their product and provide explanation to quarries made by
external examination.
Weight is allotted to every individual student and the result is communicated to registrar
(examinations).
This project will have 200 marks,
150 marks for production & 50 marks for Viva

SYLLABUS of M.Sc. (ELECTRONIC MEDIA) for Third Semester

Third Semester
M-13 Multimedia Technology in Electronic media
Objectives:-
�� Understanding hardware and software requirements for graphics and animation
�� To train students with a sound understanding of multimedia
�� To train students as a creative multimedia practioner
�� To train students with sound knowledge of multimedia tools
Unit-1 Introduction to multimedia
�� Concept and evolution of multimedia
�� Hardware requirement and gadgetry for multimedia
�� Use of multimedia in Electronic media
�� Components of multimedia: Graphics, text, video and sound
Unit - 2 Image and Graphics
�� Introduction to digital Image, Type and properties of graphics
�� Color’s theory : models and modes
�� Fundamental digital Image and file formats
�� Scanner : function and type
�� Introduction to Adobe Illustrator
Unit - 3 Introduction to digital Sound
�� Definition of Digital Sound.
�� Features of Digital sound : Tone, note, intensity, pitch & timbre
�� Digitization and Audio Compression.
�� Electronic music and synthesizer: MIDI interface and data format
�� Recording and Editing of sound and music by sound forge
Unit -4 Animation
�� Animation : meaning and types
�� Classification : Film animation & Computer animation
�� Concept of 2D & 3D animation.
�� Introduction to 3D Max : Feature & Facilities.
�� Fundamental of 3D animation : space, axes, co-ordinate line, special effects,
morphing, skeletal deformation
Unit -5 Authoring and production
�� Authoring metaphors: Introduction, definition and function.
�� Basic categories : slide show, book metaphor, windowing metaphor, Icon
metaphor and network metaphor
�� Authoring stages: content, flow chart, prototyping programming, testing and
evaluations
�� Multimedia production team members
�� Process of multimedia production: Development, Pre-production, production, post
production and delivery
32
Assignment :-
- Design and develop graphic with photoshop and coral draw
- Record an audio files and apply effects to it.
- Develop a 2D animation using Animator pro.
- Develop a 3D animation using 3D Studio MAX.
- Any assignment given by the faculty .
Reference :-
- Soochna Prodhyogiki awam Patrakarita by Malik, Ashok
- Encyclopedia of animation techniques by Richard Taylor
- Producing Animation by Catherine Winder
- Knowledge management in the digital Newsroom by Stephen quinn
- Young people and New Media by Sonia, Livingstone
- Dictionary of internet by Dsouza Y. K.
- Women empowerment through information technology by Sharma, Usha
- Multimedia Magic – BPB Publication
- Multimedia Making by Van Vaughen – TMH Publication
- 3D max Fundamentals – Techmedia
Teaching methodology: Lecture, seminar, demonstration on computer, practical
exercise, discussion and comparison of Electronic media.
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33
M-14 Advance level of Script Writing for Electronic Media
Objective:
- To develop a sound language capability for effective communication
- To impart training of idea generation and writing it down
- Developing skill of scripting for different media
- To enable students perform writing for electronic media
Unit 1 Language and Communication
�� Meaning and definition of language, perception
�� Audio language symbols, signs, symbols, icons etc
�� Difference between written and spoken language
�� Instant script preparation
�� Changing trends in media language
Unit 2 Professional Scripting
�� Script : meaning and types of script
�� Role of a scriptwriter in media
�� Concept of content and form
�� Process of scripting : idea formation, research, sequencing,
�� opening and concluding
Unit 3 Radio Scripting and Language
�� Concept of spoken language
�� Stages of scripting and editing
�� Writing for different program genre/Adaplation
�� Talk, news, newsreel, documentary, drama music and news formats
Unit 4 Television Scripting and Language
�� Writing for visuals and visual communication
�� Relationship between narration and visuals
�� Writing for fictional and non fictional programmes
�� Types of script – Treatment, screen play, shooting script, break down script
�� Full page and split page script
Unit 5 Writing for Web
�� Web writing and its growth
�� Features of web writing
�� Netizen /Flogs
�� Experimentation with language on internet
�� Emerging internet language
�� Debate of content vs. form
Assignments:-
- Participate in debate on the issues relating to language and communication
- Exercises of scripting on different formats
34
- Writing a five minutes radio talk on any current issue
- Scripting for a 10 minutes television documentary
- Scripting for a two minutes radio social advertisement
- Scripting exercise for web portal feature
- Preparing samples of different formats of scripts
- Organizing debate on the emerging trends of language
- Any other assignment given by the faculty
Reference:Media Writing Process by Dixit , Suryaprasad
Television & Screen Media by Blum, RichardA
Media Writers guide by Nortran , William Van
New Script Writers Journal by Johnson, Maryc
Basic aspects of Media Writing by Gupta , om
- The Craft of Copy Writing by June A Valladares, Response book
- Screen and Television Writing by EVGENE VALE
- Feature Writing for Newspaper and Mazing by Edward friend Lander John
Lee Harpee
- News Writing from Lead to 30 Mel & William
- Writing News for Broadcast by Bliss Patterson, Columbia University Press
- Plays on AIR By Stephen William & Huchintion Publication.
- Radio Drama – Theory and Practice, Tem crook, London.
- Writing for TV and Radio Hillard Robert, New York.
- Writing with power, Techniques for mastering the writing process, Elbow
Peter, New York
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35
M-15 Producing Advertisements for Electronic Media
Objectives:
- To make students able to appreciate electronic media advertisement
- To give a understanding of advertising agency and its functioning
- To impart skill of advertisements making
- To make students aware of advertising industry and its issues
Unit 1 Concepts of Advertisement
�� Elements of a good advertisement
�� Types and appeals of advertisements
�� Importance of commercials in electronic media
�� Advertising and society
Unit 2 Advertisement for Radio & TV
�� Creativity in advertisement
�� copy writing and creative direction
�� Writing for radio advertisement (jingles and spots)
�� Importance of visual thinking
�� Storyboard for television advertisement
Unit 3 Production of Advertisement
�� Concept of media planning
�� Research inputs - media, product and audience profile
�� Drawing up the plan and setting objectives
�� Concept of brand positioning, brand image and brand equity
Unit 4 Advertising agency and Its structure
�� Introduction to major advertising agencies in India
�� Structure and function of advertising agency
Unit 5 Advertisement for Web
�� Internet as a medium of advertising
�� Evolution of web advertising
�� Production of web advertisements.
�� Web portals and advertising revenue
Assignment:-
- Participate in discussion one impact of advertisements on socity.
- Plan a production of 30 seconds TV advertisement
- Script social advertisement for radio
- Analyze and compare web advertisements
- Any other assignment given by the faculty
36
Reference: -
- News audiences & every day life by Nath , Shyam
ASCI code of advertisement
- Advertisement code of Doordarshan
- Advertising Copywriting, Philp Warad Burton Grid
- Creative Advertising- Theory and Practice by Andre E. Mariarty
- Advertising Management by Dr. MM Varma,
- Break ke Baad by Sudheesh Pachauri
- Handbook of Advertising Management byRoger Barton, McGraw Hill Pub.
- Principles of Marketing, Philip Kotler, Prentice Hall, New Jersy
- Media Planning by J R Adams, Business Books, 1971
- Consumer Behavior by Leon G. Schiffman and Leslie Lazar Kanuk, Prentice Hall
India
- Essentials of Management by Harold Koonz and Heinz weihrich, Mac Graw -Hills
Pub.
- Management and Practice of Public Relations by Norman Stone, Mac Millan Pub.
---------------------------------------------------
37
M-16 Media Research
Objective:
- To teach basics of research and its application on media
- To develop skills of different kinds of research methodologies
- To familiarize students with knowledge of electronic media researches
Unit 1 Concept of Research
�� Meaning, definition and nature of research
�� Importance of media research
�� Scope of Media Research
�� Problem of objectivity in research
Unit 2 Major elements of Research
�� Hypothesis and variables
�� Sampling - meaning, types and problems
�� Research design and its types
�� Survey research, experimental and field research, panel research
Unit 3 Tools and Methods of Research
�� Sources of data - primary and secondary source
�� Questionnaire and schedules
�� Observation - participatory and non participatory
�� Interview method
�� Case study
�� Content analysis
�� Diary writing
Unit 4 Type of Research in Electronic Media
�� Application of research in electronic media
�� Formative and summative research
�� TRP and TAM
�� Audience research cell
Unit 5 Application of Statistics
�� Tabulation and classification of data
�� Data analysis, software for data analysis interpretation
�� Elementary statistics - mean, median and mode
�� Graphic and diagrammatic representation of data
�� Indexing, citation and bibliography
�� Research report writing
Assignments:-
- Make a research plan for a specific topic
- Prepare a schedule for survey on relevant research issue.
- Collect data on the basis of prepared scheduled by survey
- Classify and tabulate the data collected by survey
- Analyze data and make graphic presentation with the help of computer
38
- Write a brief report on the above research conducted
- Paper presentation on the importance of research in media
- Any other assignment given by the faculty.
Reference:
- Social Research and Statistics by R.N. Mukerjee, Vivek Prakashan, Delhi
- Scientific Method and Social Research by B. N. Ghosh, Sterling Publishers N. Delhi
92
- 'Samaajik Shodh aur Saankhyiki' by Ravindernath Mukerjee, Vivek Prakashan
- Sanchar Shodh Pravidhi – Dr. Shrikant Singh
- Sanchar Shodh – Dr. Manoj Dayal
- Shachar Shodh – Dr. Sanjeev Bhanawat
---------------------------------------------------
39
M-17 Electronic Media Management
Objective –
- To impart an understanding of economic part of media
- Understanding the television and cable industry business
- To give an brief overview of media scenario
- To make students aware with the management responsibilities
- To develop students as team professional
- To induce an understanding of production process
Unit 1 Production Management
�� Production planning, scheduling and managing deadline
�� Resource management – Procurement, Storage and Logistics
�� Maintenance of records – print and video library
�� Quality management – Elimination of errors and production efficiency
�� Promotion of total quality management
Unit 2 Equipment Resources
�� Equipment for field production
�� Configuration for multi- camera studio production
�� Preventive maintenance, breakdown maintenance and
o Corrective maintenance
�� Equipment acquisition procedure
Unit 3 Resource Management
�� Sources of financial assistance
�� Pre – script and post script budgeting
�� Contract document – penalty and legal implications
�� Technical and financial proposals
�� Commissioned and sponsored programme
Unit 4 Managing Human Resources
�� Characteristics of HR in production
�� Dealing with creative persons
�� Organizational dynamics and culture
�� Co-ordination, team building, leadership skill and motivation
�� New ownership pattern
�� Recruitment and contractual engagement of H.R., Service conditions and general
administration
�� Channel management and training and redeployment of personnel .
Unit 5 Electronic Media Marketing
�� Market survey: media, product and audience profile
�� Television rating point (TRP)
�� Agencies of rating, process and method of rating
�� India’s major media houses
�� Major heads of income in media
�� Indian scenario of satellite television industry
40
�� Process of distribution of signals
�� Pay channels v/s free channels
Assignment:-
- Present a paper on the economic issues of media
- Participate in a debate on issues relating cable industry
- visit a local satellite television setup and analyze its economic functioning
- Conduct an interview with a production manager of a TV studio to enlist.
(a) Role, responsibility and accountability of production manager.
(b) Process of managing technical and human resources.
(c) Methodology to meet deadlines.
- Visit to tape/resource library of a television production centre to observe and report
functioning record keeping and retrieval system, care and maintenance of
tapes/CD's/DVD'S.
- Develop a pre script budget for a 30-min documentary assign to a PSCU having
locations restricted to area specified by faculty . (For this assignment other relevant
details shall be made available by the faculty.
- Develop technical and financial proposals for your client against requirement of
producing a documentary for a duration of 20 minutes in Hindi and in English for
telecasting purposes.
Reference:-
- Promotion & Marketing for Broadcasting Cable of the web by Eastman, Susantylen
- The Global Media – New Missionaries of Global Capitalism by Edverd
Herman and Robert McChesney, Madhyam Publication
- Cable Quest’ monthly magazine published by cable operator’s association
- Film production Management by Bastian, Cleve
- Indian media business by Kohli, Vanita
- Producers business handbook by John J Lee
- How to make great short feature films by Lan Lewis
- Electronic Media Management by Chiranjeev Avinash
- Television Program making – Colin mast
- Film Production Management by Bastian, Cleve
- The technique of Television production– Gerald Millerson
- Television Production - Allen Wurtzel
- The Techniques of Video-Production – Gerald Millerson
- The Essential TV Directions Hand Book – Peter Jarvis.
- Television Production – Zettle
41
M-18 Practical and Viva
Concept:
Semester end practical strand could be viewed as 'part end evaluation'. Here the students
shall be tested for level of skills attained during a particular semester. Semester end
practical is expected to be conducted for evaluation sake by a competent professional
from the field of application. In some limited extent hence this is an orientation of
students towards world of work.
Objectives:
To provide opportunities to the students to prepare certain exercises for possible
demonstration of skills acquired by then to the specific level of acceptable performance.
These specifications shall come from the external expert. However for his referencing a
sample list of exercises shall be made available.
Process:
During the process the students shall be introduced to the expert. The expert shall assign
task/s to the students to demonstrate skills acquired by them during the semester. The
expert shall observe and evaluate student performance against his criteria of acceptable
performance and rank order the outcome. It is also expected of the expert that s/he shall
lend a hand of help for the students with a view to fill up the gap of knowledge, skill and
aptitude if any.
Guidelines for the external experts:
�� Avoid paper-pencil testing as far as possible.
�� Observe the individual performance and submit the outcome on a given performa.
�� The expert is supposed to evaluate students on the basis of at least three
tasks/assignments.
�� The expert is to cover all the modules during his efforts to judge students.
�� S/he may adopt any creative mode of evaluation suitable for the purpose. For
example: classroom presentation, group discussion, oral test (viva voice), outdoor
assignment, skill performance, role-play of anchor and interviewer etc.
Division of marks
Task/assignment - 1 25
Task/assignment - 2 25
Task/assignment - 3 25
Viva Voice 25
Total 100
A sample list of practicals :
�� Making any graphics using multimedia
�� Record an audio files and apply effects to it.
�� Preparing samples of different formats of scripts
�� Debate on obscenity and film censor board.
�� Present a paper on one press law assigned by faculty.
�� Participate in a debate on issues relating cable industry
42
�� Develop a pre script budget for a 30-min documentary assign to a PSCU having
locations restricted to area specified by faculty . (For this assignment other relevant
details shall be made available by the faculty.
�� Develop technical and financial proposals for your client against requirement of
producing a documentary for a duration of 20 minutes in Hindi and in English for
telecasting purposes.

SYLLABUS of M.Sc. (ELECTRONIC MEDIA) for First Semester

M-1: INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION & MEDIA
OBJECTIVES
�� To acquaint students with the concept and process of communication and to
enable them to appreciate the potential and limitations of various
communication process.
�� To acquaint students with various types of media and there characteristics.
�� To familiarise students with the comprehensive characteristics of various media
UNIT ONE : NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNICATION
1.1 : Communication: definition, nature and scope
1.2 : Human needs of communication; functions of communication
1.3 : Types of communication: Intra-personal, interpersonal, group and mass communication
1.4 : Indian approach to communication
Teaching- interactive hours :12
UNIT TWO : PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION
2.1 : Elements in the process of communication
2.2 : Communication flows: one-step, two-step, multi- steps.
2.3 : Verbal and non-verbal communication.
2.4 : Barriers in communication.
Teaching- -interactive hours :12
UNIT THREE: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA
3.1 : Print media: Introduction, types and characteristics.
3.2 : Radio : types and its characteristics.
3.3 : Television: its characteristics
3.4 : Traditional media: It’s characteristics.
Teaching- -interactive hours :12
UNIT FOUR: NEW MEDIA TECHNOLOGY
4.1: Satellite and cable media
4.2: Digital Media
4.3: Convergence and media
4.4: Web Based Media
UNIT FIVE : MEDIA AND SOCIETY
5.1: Media and Social Change
5.2: Role of media in democracy
5.3: Media and culture
5.4: Media and Public Opinion
Teaching- interactive hours :12
7
TASKS
1. Visiting TV, Radio and Newspaper organisations and writing reports on visits.
2. Interpersonal and group communication exercises in the class room.
TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODS
�� Lectures
�� Students’ Seminars
�� Library Consultation
�� Visits to media centres
EVALUATION SCHEME
�� Continuous Evaluation Maximum Marks-25
�� Summative Evaluation Maximum Marks-75
Aggregate Passing Percentage 45%
(A) Continuous Evaluation
Marks: 25
Minimum Passing Marks: 10
�� At least three assignments /class tests, out of that one will be comprehensive. Max. marks: 20
�� Participation in the class (based on attendance): Max. marks: 05
(B) Summative Evaluation
Maximum Marks: 75
Minimum Passing Marks: 30
�� A written examination will be held at the end of the semester.
�� The question paper will cover all the units in equal proportion. One question
from each unit will be compulsory to answer.
�� Students may be asked to apply theoretical knowledge to applied problems.
READING LIST
1. Andre E. Mariarty, “Creative Advertising – Theory and Practice”
2. Arvind Singhal and Everett M. Rogers, “Indian Information Revolution” Sage
pub. Delhi .
3. DD Basu, “Press Laws”, Pub. Prentice Hall.
4. Denis Mcquail “Mass Communication Theory:An Introduction“
8
5. Keval J. Kumar, “Mass Communication in India “
6. Philp Warad Burton Grid “Advertising Copy”
7. PK Badhopadhyay and Kuldeep S. Arora “Journalistic Ethics”
8. Pradeep Kumar Day “Perspectives in Mass Communication”
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9
M-2 ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF INDIAN MEDIA
OBJECTIVES
�� To educate students about role of newspapers in Indian freedom struggle
�� To acquaint students with historical growth, development and trends of
different media.
UNIT ONE: CHARACTERISTICS OF PRE - INDEPENDENCE INDIAN PRESS
1.1: History of Bengal Gazette’ and ‘Udant Marthand’.
1.2: Contribution of pioneer journalists like Raja Ram Mohan Rai and Bhartendu
Babu Harishchandra
1.3: Role of press in freedom movement;
1.4: Brief introduction of prominent journalists: Lokmanya Tilak, Mahatma Gandhi ,
Baburao Vishnu Paradkar, Makhanlal Chaturvedi, Madhav Rao Sapre and Ganesh
Shankar Vidyarthi
Teaching – interactive Hours : 12
UNIT TWO: CHARACTERISTICS OF POST- INDEPENDENCE REGIONAL LANGUAGE PRESS
2.1: The regional press after independence: nature and growth; Web based
Regional newspapers
2.2: Trends in post independence leading Hindi language newspapers: Nai Duniya, Danik
Bhaskar, Aj . Cosmopolitan Hindi newspapers and magazines: Navbharat Times,
Hidustan, Jansatta, Hindi Outlook, Hindi India Today
2.3: Trends in post independence leading non-Hindi regional language newspapers : one
each in Malayalam,, Telgu, Tamil, Kannada, Bengali, Marathi, Gujrati and Assami
2.4: Growth of leading Hindi News Agencies Web based Regional newspapers .
Teaching – interactive Hours : 12
UNIT THREE: CHARACTERISTICS OF POST- INDEPENDENCE ENGLISH LANGUAGE PRESS
3.1 : The English press after independence: nature and growth; web based newspapers
3.2 : Characteristics of Times of India, Indian Express, Hidustan Times
3.3 : Characteristics of The Statesman, The Hindu, The Tribune
3.4 : Growth and characteristics of English language news agencies.
UNIT FOUR : BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF RADIO AND TELEVISION HISTORY
3.1: Development of Radio;public and private radio systems; characteristics of
FM and Ham Radio
3.2: Brief history of television in India
10
3.3: Introduction to public and private television networks; cable industry in India
3.4: Recommendations of various committees for improvement of All India
Radio and Doordarshan
Teaching – interactive Hours : 12
UNIT FIVE : BRIEF HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT OF FILM AND TRADITIONAL MEDIA
4.1: A brief early history of silent Indian Cinema
4.2: Early talkie era in India
4.3: Growth of different types of films such as documentary and feature films;
parallel and commercial cinema in India.
4.4: Traditional media; contemporary relevance of traditional media
Teaching – interactive Hours : 12
TASKS:
1. Preparing a bibliography of pre-independence newspapers.
2. Preparing synopsis of o5 leading documentary films produced by Indian film makers
and writing their synopsis
3. Writing profile and characteristics of any one local radio or TV channel
TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODS
�� Lectures
�� Students’ Seminars
�� Library Consultation
�� Media monitoring
�� Visiting Newspaper Archive
EVALUATION SCHEME
�� Continuous Evaluation (During Semester) Marks-25
�� Summative Evaluation (End Semester) Marks-75
Aggregate Passing Percentage 45%
A) Continuous Evaluation
Maximum Marks: 25
Minimum Passing Mark: 10
At least three assignments /class tests, out of that one will be comprehensive. Max.
marks: 20
�� Participation in the class (based on attendance): Max. marks: 05
(B) Summative Evaluation
Maximum Marks: 75
Minimum Passing Marks: 30
11
�� A written examination will be held at the end of the semester to evaluate the
basic knowledge of student in the subject.
�� The students will be given 50 per cent choice to select the questions to answer.
One question from each unit will be compulsory to answer.
READING LIST
1. Arbind Singhal : “India’s Communication Revolution”
2. G. Parsarthi : History of Indian Jounalism
3. Ninan Shevanthi : “Headlines from the Heartland : Reinventing the Hindi
Public Spshere”, Sage Publication - 2007
4. Robbin Jeffery: :India’s Newspaper Revolution”, Oxford University Press
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6. Usha Rani. Dr.:Traditional Media and Development
12
M-3: INTRODUCTION TO SOCIO-ECONOMIC POLITY
OBJECTIVES
�� To orient students in understanding their surroundings so that they can
understand and analyze issues implicit in polity, economy, culture, history and
other subjects, that concern humanity.
�� To develop aptitude of students so that they develop their own initiative in
acquiring knowledge about issues and develop their own expression by
responding on these issues.
UNIT ONE: INDIAN CONSTITUTION : BASIC CHARACTERISTICS
1.1 : Objectives and ideals of Indian Constitution; Parliamentary system
1.2 : Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State
1.3 : Federal and unitary nature; Center-State relationship; Civil services
1.4 : Election, emergency powers: Amendments of constitution
Teaching – interactive Hours:
12
UNIT TWO : POLITICAL SYSTEM AND PARLIAMENTARY PROCEEDINGS
2.1 : Introduction to various political systems.
2.2 : Parliamentary and legislative procedure in India
2.3 : Power and privileges of parliament members
2.4 : Indian judicial system
Teaching – interactive Hours
: 12
UNIT THREE: HISTORY, CULTURE AND SOCIETY
3.1 : Characteristics of main stages of Indian history
3.2 : Basic elements of Indian culture
3.3 : Secularism, communalism, fundamentalism
3.4 : Aspects of various social concerns: poverty, gender inequality, child rights& human
rights
Teaching – interactive Hours :12
UNIT FOUR : INTRODUCTION TO INDIAN AND WORLD ECONOMY
4.1 : Nature of Indian economy
4.2 : Essential Economic Terms: Per Capita Income, Currency Devaluation,
4.3 : Indian agriculture :Issues and problems, Indian industry: challenges.
4.4 : Introduction to World Economy, the concept of Globalization, World Trade Organization
Teaching – interactive Hours : 12
UNIT FIVE : CURRENT AFFAIRS :ISSUES & INTERNATIONAL SCENARIO
5.1 : Indian Foreign Policy
5.2 : United Nations and SAARC
13
5.3 : Introduction to International Politics: Brief history and current major issues.
5.4 : Current national and international events
Teaching – interactive Hours : 12
TASKS:
1. Comparing at least two articles published on the same subject with different perspectives
2. Preparing a clipping file on a particular theme/ subject and writing a summary report
on that.
TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODS
�� Lectures
�� Students’ Seminars
�� Library Consultation
�� Media monitoring
EVALUATION SCHEME
�� Continuous Evaluation Mark-25
�� Summative Evaluation Mark-75
Aggregate Passing Percentage 45%
(A) Continuous Evaluation
Maximum Marks: 25
Minimum Passing Mark: 10
�� At least three assignments /class tests, out of that one will be comprehensive.Max.
marks: 20
�� Participation in the class (based on attendance): Max. marks: 05
(B) Summative Evaluation
Maximum Mark: 75
Minimum Passing Marks: 30
�� A written examination will be held at the end of the semester to evaluate the
basic knowledge of the students in the subject.
�� The question paper will cover all the units in equal proportion. One question
from each unit will be compulsory to answer.
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M-4 MEDIA LANGUAGE: STRUCTURE, STYLE & TRANSLATION
OBJECTIVES
�� To prepare students to understand the basics of Hindi & English grammar
and composition so that they are able to translate text from English to Hindi
and vice versa in correct and effective manner.
�� To prepare students learn idioms and phrases generally used in both the
language for journalistic expressions
�� To develop ability of students to do different translation from English to
Hindi or Hindi to English
UNIT ONE: ESSENTIALS OF MEDIA WRITING
1.1 : Characteristics of writing for newspapers and magazines..
1.2 :.Basics of grammar in Hindi and English; use of phrases and words
1.3 : Basics of writing for radio
1.4 : Basic writing for TV
Teaching - interactive Hours: 12
UNIT TWO: NEWS & FEATURE WRITING SKILLS
2.1 : News: concepts and elements
2.2 : Writing Intros and Headline
2.3 : Writing simple News Stories
2.4 : Writing Feature Articles
Teaching - interactive Hours: 12
UNIT THREE: PARAPHRASING & TRANSLATION
3.1 : Methods of paraphrasing, attribution, and quoting
3.2 : Translating at least 5 different news items
3.3 : Translating at least one creative writing of about 500 words
3.4 : Preparing a list of at least 20 phrases in Hindi and English used for the same expression
Workshop - Practice Hours : 20
UNIT FOUR: TRANSLATING JOURNALISTIC CONTENT-1: BUSINESS
4.1 : Translating at least 5 different news items from business pages
4.2 : Translating at least 20 different headlines of business news
4.3 : Translating at least one article on business
4.4 : Preparing a glossary of 25 words in both the language, generally used for the
same expression for business related journalistic content
Workshop - Practice Hours : 20
15
UNIT FIVE: TRANSLATING JOURNALISTIC CONTENT-2: SPORTS
5.1 : Translating at least 5 different news items on five different sports
5.2 : Translating at least 20 headlines of sport news items of different sport
5.3 : Translating a column article of renown person on sport
5.4 : Preparing a glossary of 25 words in both the languages, generally used for the same
expression for different sports..
Workshop - Practice Hours: 20
TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODS
�� Workshops on translation practice
�� Newspaper Reading
�� Preparing subject specific glossary
�� Field assignment for news gathering
EVALUATION SCHEME
�� Continuous Evaluation Mark-25
�� Summative Evaluation Mark-75
Aggregate Passing Percentage 45%
(A) Continuous Evaluation: Maximum Marks: 25
Minimum Passing Mark: 10
�� At least 10 assignments of translation. Max. marks: 20
�� Participation in the class (based on attendance): Max. marks: 05
(B) Summative Evaluation Maximum Mark: 75
Minimum Passing Marks: 30
�� A written examination will be held at the end of the semester to evaluate the skills in
translation and news writing and also theoretical knowledge of communicative
language.
�� The question paper will cover all the units in equal proportion. One question from
each unit will be compulsory to answer.
�� Students will be asked to translate various small pieces from English to Hindi or
vice-versa.
16
M-5: BASIC COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
OBJECTIVES
1. To acquaint students with the computer, its parts and peripheral operating
system, word processing, Internet and image editing.
2. To enable students to acquire the following skills:
�� Creating and managing of files and folders; Processing text.
�� Analysis of data and preparation of charts and graphs.
�� Making Presentations
�� Handling Internet and using its terminologies.
�� Editing Graphics and Images
UNIT ONE: COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS
1.1 : Definition, Generations and basic components of Computer
1.2 : Input/output devices, Memory and other peripherals
1.3 : Introduction to Operating System (Windows 98/XP)
1.4 : Functions and features of Operating System (Accessories, Control Panel,
Desktop, Windows Explorer)
Teaching - practice hours: 15
UNIT TWO : OFFICE AUTOMATION TOOLS: MS Word
2.1 : Introduction to MS Office Suit
2.2 : Introduction to Word Processing
2.3 : MS Word interface, Tools and Menus
2.4 : Document editing and formatting, Mail Merge and other tools
Teaching - practice hours: 15
UNIT THREE: OFFICE AUTOMATION TOOLS: MS Excel and MS PowerPoint
3.1 : MS Excel Interface, Tools and Menus
3.2 : Creating Spreadsheet, Use of functions, Charts and Graphs
3.3 : MS PowerPoint Interface, Tools and Menus
3.4 : Creating slides, inserting multimedia objects, Transition and Custom
Animation,
Delivering Presentations
Teaching - practice hours: 15
UNIT FOUR: INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET
4.1 : Brief history and services of Internet (E-mail, Video Conferencing, Internet
Telephony, Chatting, Blogs, Usenet)
4.2 : Internet Protocols (FTP, HTTP, TCP/IP)
4.3 : Websites, Portals and Search Engines; Online Newspapers/channels/magazines
4.4 : Advantages and threats in Internet Communication
Teaching - practice hours: 15
17
UNIT FIVE: INTRODUCTION TO ADOBE PHOTOSHOP
5.1 : Introduction to Graphics, Color models and modes
5.2 : Graphic file formats and their applications
5.3 : Adobe Photoshop Interface, Tools and Menus
5.4 : Working with Layers, Filters, Masking and other tools
Teaching - practice hours: 15
TASKS:
1. Creating/Renaming//Copying/Moving/Deleting files and folders. Searching files,
Creating
2. Shortcuts
3. Changing Desktop Settings
4. Practicing typing in Hindi/English
5. Preparing and formatting assignments and articles using MS Word.(At least Two)
6. Preparing Charts and Worksheets using functions.(At least One)
7. Preparing MS Power Point Presentations.(At least One)
8. Searching information using appropriate keywords
9. Browsing major online newspapers/channels/magazines
10. Design magazine cover pages/Posters. (At least Two)
11. Exporting files in other file formats
TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODS
�� Class Room Teaching
�� Lab Exercises
�� Workshops
EVALUATION SCHEME
�� Continuous Evaluation Mark-25
�� Summative Evaluation Mark-75
Aggregate Passing Percentage 45%
(A) Continuous Evaluation: Maximum Marks: 25
Minimum Passing Mark: 10
�� At least three practical assignments and also three class tests on theory. Max. marks: 20
�� Participation in the class (based on attendance): Max. marks: 05
(B) Summative Evaluation Maximum Mark: 75
Minimum Passing Marks: 30
�� A written examination of the student will be held at the end of the semester.
�� The question paper will cover all the units in equal proportion. One question
from each unit will be compulsory to answer.
18
�� Students may be asked to apply their knowledge to applied problems.
READING LIST
1. “Adobe Photoshop – Creative Techniques” , PHI
2. V Rajaraman: “ Fundamentals of Computer” , PHI
3. Vishnu Priya Singh & Minakshi Singh : “Windows 98(Illustrated)”, Asian
publishers
4. “Windows 98 complete” : BPB Publication
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19
M-6 PRACTICALS AND COMPREHENSIVE VIVA VOCE
OBJECTIVES
1. To engage students in writing simple news.
2. To involve students to do practical exercises of basic computer applications.
3. To enable students comprehend knowledge gathered in different courses and share
that orally with others.
LEARNING METHODS
Instead of holding separate classes the methods will be incorporated in the teaching
and practice of all other subjects. The basic format will be as:
1. Students participation in class seminar
2. Group and individual oral presentation by students on different topics.
3. Gathering field information and writing news.
4. Reading Newspaper and analysing different news.
5. Rewriting news.
6. Hands on learning and practice on computer.
EVALUATION
(A) Continuous Evaluation: Maximum Marks: 25
Minimum Pass Marks:10
�� Minimum one assignment of oral presentation: Max. Marks: 05
�� At least two assignments of writing news: Max. Marks: 10
�� At least two assignments based on computer application: Max. Marks: 10
B) Summative Evaluation: Maximum Marks: 75
�� At the end of the semester, each student will be evaluated in the following
three parts.
i. A comprehensive viva voce examination will be conducted to evaluate the basic
knowledge of students in all the subjects: Max. Marks: 25
ii. A practical examination on news writing will be conducted: Max. Marks: 25
iii. A practical examination on computer application will be held Max. Marks: 25
(C) Aggregate Passing Percentage 45%